Any Natural or human made calamities that causes severe damage to the livelihood is termed as a disaster. We cannot prevent the occurrence of a natural disaster but we cane reduce the after effects caused by the disaster by means of proper management. In simple words Disaster management is the way of dealing with human, material and economic impact of the said disaster.
In general, Disasters are of two types:
Natural Disaster – Earthquake, Floods, Landslide, Volcano eruption, cyclone
Manmade Disaster – Biological, Chemical and Nuclear disasters
Disaster management is multilayered. It is used to address the people affected due to the above mentioned any of the calamity and helps them with good medical care food and housing.
TYPES OF DISASTERS
Disasters are broadly classified into four types:
Pandemic emergencies – we are well used for this word for the past two years. This type of disaster is the spread of contagious disease all over the country and it results in various health issues. It also results in death of many people. It indirectly affects the economy very badly.
Natural disasters – This includes floods, earthquakes, Tsunami, hurricane etc… Due to this type of disasters many peoples would lose their house, job and even family. It also results in death of many peoples.
Environmental Emergencies – This type of disaster is due to Industrial accidents. It is mainly due to the use of hazardous materials. It pollutes the environment.
Complex emergencies– This type of disaster occurs when the government collapses. It results in war.
TYPES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
There Are Four Major Steps In Managing A Disaster. It is also called as emergency management.
Mitigation – This step involves reducing the impact of the disaster or eliminating it completely. It helps to reduce loss of property and lives.
Preparedness – As the name suggests one must be prepared to face the consequence caused by the disaster. This also includes training and exercise. Hence this process needs more safety and security measures.
Response – This describes the action taken in response to the results caused by the disaster therefore more resources are needed for this process.
Recovery – This is the final step of disaster management. It denotes that all service are fully recovered and normal situation is attained
Hence, we can say that the cycle involves action before during and after any disaster occurs.
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FACTORS TO CONSIDER FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT
They are widely classified into eight categories:
Technological – It involves scientific tools or technique to benefit disaster management.
Social – It represents the society and its members.
Environmental – all natural and built environment comes under this factor.
Legal – It covers Law, rules and regulations for managing a disaster.
Economical – They are of two types Long term economic planning measures and Financial factors.
Operational – it is related to skills and operational competencies.
Institutional – institution for managing a disaster is covered in this factor.
Political – issues related to political parties are considered in this factor.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
PREVENTION OF DISASTER
Disaster cannot be fully eradicated but it can be controlled. It is achieved by providing proper awareness to the public. Prediction and warning system can be used to reduce the impact of the disaster. It is achieved by providing proper education.
PURPOSE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
The main purpose of disaster management is to understand the disaster and take necessary rescue operation. It is also used to provide relief measures such as arranging a rehabilitation program.
Another main aim of disaster management is to control the death rate. It also aims at protecting the environment and minimizing the losses.
ADVANTAGES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
There are various benefits in managing a disaster. By doing so huge loss can be prevented.
In man made case even the disaster can be prevented.
It is cost efficient because for recovery we use multiple components
Hence, we can conclude that by proper planning and preparedness any disaster can be faced without huge losses.