Nanotechnology is the study and control of materials in incredibly small range that is of roughly 1 to 100 nm. Nanotechnology is used in various sectors of engineering and technology such as information technology, aerospace, Medicine and national defence. Hence nanotechnology is very important and innovative technique for the future generation.
Nanomaterial’s has unique properties and are subdivided into nanocrystals, nanopowders and nanotubes.
Nanotechnology is preferred because at nanoscale a material can subject to various changes in the Properties of material such as size, magnetism, Thermal, Mechanical and optical changes.
Nanotechnology plays an important role in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Nanoscale devices interact with the cancer cells and help to destroy it.
There are two main type of approaches used in Nanotechnology:
Bottom up approach – They uses forces that is operating at nanoscale to assemble small units to larger structures. Examples of bottom up approach is Watson crick base parking.
Top down approach – It is Breaking of bulk material into smaller one. Example of top down approach is mechanical grinding.
History of Nanotechnology
- Nano is derived from a greek word meaning “dwarf”. It means a billionth part of one metre.
- The first concept of nanotechnology was in 1959 by professor Dr.Richard P.Feynman.
- The word Nanotechnology was first used in Tokyo science university in 1974 by Taniguchi.
- In 1981 IBM developed scanning tunnelling microscope.
- In 1999 first nanomedicine book was written by R.Freitas.
- In 2000 National nanotechnology initiative was launched.
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Classification of Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology is categorised into three types:
- Using Thin films
- Using nanoscale fibres
- Using nano particles
Nanotechnology in Medical field
Nanotechnology industry focus on medical field is 8%. There are three main stages in medical applications . They are
- Monitoring of health
In medical field they are used in various treatments such as:
Cancer treatment – Nanoparticles are injected inside the tumour and then activated. It destroys the cancer cell by using X-ray or light.
Medical tools – Many medical devices used today such as Small size batteries for pacemakers are possible only by using nanotechnology.
Bone treatment – Bones consists of organic and inorganic minerals. It can be assembled by using nanoscale. Hence nanoparticles are injected into the bone and the disease is cured.
Diagnostic tests – By this technique various research fields gets improved. For example detection of biomarkers, cancer tests etc.
Drug development – They are used to develop non toxic drugs. By using it degradation is protected. Efficiency is also increased.
Imaging – it is used to take the images of various organs of the body.
Dentistry – Most of the treatments in dentistry is performed using nanotechnology technique. For example Fillings, Crowns restoration.
Development of MEMS – Micro Electromechanical Systems.
Medical Nano Robots
- Nanotechnology is used to detect the disease at the early stage itself and cure it completely.
- The use of nanotechnology in medical devices includes the use of nanorobots.
- We can say nanorobots are used for protecting human body against pathogens.
- Several units are fitted together to develop a robot measuring 0.5 to 3 microns.
- A navigation network is installed so as to provide high accuracy of the position of the nanorobots.
- The nanorobots powering is done by glucose and oxygen for energy.
- They are able to differentiate between different types of cells by using surface antigens.
- They are capable of performing 1000 or fewer computations per second.
Nano Surgery in Hospitals
An AFM – Atomic Force Microscope is developed into a surgical tool. The tip of it is attached to a lever. It helps to add or remove particles inside the cell without any harm. They can be injected into any precise location. We are able to monitor the cell in real time. It can be used in the treatment of kidney.
It is also used in laser surgery where femtolasers acts as a pair of scissors. When laser pulse is injected inside a cell .It cuts the targeted cell without affecting the other parts.
Potential Risk in Nano Surgery
- It causes Nano Pollutants.
- They are using heavy metals such as gold, Silver and lead.
- It may lead to brain damage.